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- ItemClinicians’ Lived Experience of Using the AIM3 Assessment Model to Assess Harmful Sexual Behaviour in Adolescents(Auckland University of Technology, 2023) Hume, TomHarmful sexual behaviour (HSB) is a universal issue transcending class, race and economic status. The harm that HSB causes to individuals, families, and society cannot be overstated. However, the shame and secrecy around it make it a universal taboo, creating difficulties in discovering the true extent. As something which causes so much harm, it is vital that we have the tools to be able to intervene and to treat this behaviour to be able to create societies that are free from sexual abuse. The AIM3 is the tool that is used by specialist clinicians to assess the HSB exhibited by CYP, and to help establish goals for their clinical intervention. It does this by scoring the young person (YP) across five domains: sexual behaviour; general behaviour; developmental; environmental; self-regulation. This study explored the lived experience of clinicians who specialise in treating HSB, and their use of the AIM3 model of assessment in this work. Six clinicians agreed to participate in this study, exploring their experiences of using the AIM3 in their work. Semi-structured interviews were used to look at their perspectives on this assessment model. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data that was collected from the interviews. Six key themes were identified which were then discussed in relation to current research on HSB and its occurrence in a New Zealand context. It was discovered that the clinicians had a very favourable view of the AIM3, although there were some areas of concern. Clinicians noted that cultural issues were sometimes invisible, and there was sometimes a risk of bias or subjectivity in scoring. Most of the clinicians felt as though those potential issues could be mitigated through their own experience, or through co-working.
- ItemWhakawhānautia Te Haumanu Māori - Birthing of a Māori Therapy: A Scoping Literature Review(Auckland University of Technology, 2023) Manaia, MarkIncreasing prevalence rates of psychological distress remains a detriment to the wellbeing of Māori. This study explores how a British colonial hegemony has systematically predisposed and perpetuated high negative health statistics for Māori. A process of colonisation that has dismantled societal norms and continues to violate the mauri, mana and wairua of ngā iwi Māori. Western evidence-based therapies are predominantly the chosen interventions for tangata whai i te ora seeking therapeutic support. The stance that therapeutic interventions, which evolved from Western colonial epistemologies, can heal the mana, mauri and wairua of Māori is challenged, in favour of a Māori therapeutic alternative. An alternative present within its own Māori ontology. The last four decades have borne witness to the advent of Māori health models and frameworks to better inform allied health and therapeutic delivery for positive outcomes for tangata whai i te ora cohorts. This study will investigate whether, within these models and frameworks, is there a Māori therapy silently laying await? A therapy that can provide culturally authentic and safe delivery of care for Māori. This research provides a scoping review of literature authored by allied health practitioners and talk therapy practitioners to extract key themes, components that contributed to the formation of a Māori therapy – he haumanu Māori. A Kaupapa Māori Methodology and Pūrākau Method was used to ensure reliability and validity of themes identified. The findings of the results were able to provide building blocks towards constructing a therapy schema for a Māori therapy. A therapy that inherently has a relationship with wairuatanga, a pivotal and encompassing dimension of health for Māori. Twelve models and frameworks were included in the final data set and their respective Māori constructs – ngā mātāpono me ngā uara were charted for analysis. Recommendations for key components towards he haumanu Māori include; a macro- model, a pūrākau atua Māori infused therapeutic theory, mātauranga-informed therapy framework and tikanga-informed counselling skills. A gap in the literature that warrants further investigation is the gathering and assessment of Māori counselling micro-skills.
- ItemOptimisation and Characterisation of the Cross-Linking Reaction Between Plant Proteins Using Different Strains of Laccase and Transglutaminase(Auckland University of Technology, 2023) Al-Shaikhli, Yusur Hisham SalehPlant proteins have recently gained interest due to the growth in global population and the need for more sustainable, lower cost, and health beneficiary protein sources. However, there is a limitation in the application of plant-based proteins because of their poor functionalities such as solubility, and lower levels of essential amino acids and digestibility. There is a need to modify the protein structure to improve its functional and nutritional quality using various methods such as heat or enzymic treatment. In this research, the optimization of enzymic modification will be done on lupin and pea as well as lupin and soy. The enzymes used to cross-link the selected proteins are laccase and transglutaminase in which different conditions e.g., pH change, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentrations, and protein concentrations were applied to optimise the cross-linking reaction. The results showed a limitation in the cross-linking of lupin and pea which could be due to the low solubility of pea. Nevertheless, there was a change to the cross-linking of soy and lupin proteins where it showed the cross-links more clearly on SDS-PAGE gels. The optimal conditions were chosen to be upscaled and multiple physicochemical tests were done to examine the effect of cross-linking on the proteins. Such as examining the emulsion properties, which showed that the emulsion ability of enzymatically treated proteins was not significantly different from each other; however, proteins treated with TG had higher emulsion stability compared with proteins treated with laccase. The particle size was also examined; the diameter size was found to be smaller in the mixture treated with laccase (LA1) for 20 hours at 20°C, while the mixture treated with laccase and ferulic acid (LA1+FA) for 1 hour at 20°C had the highest particle diameter as well as the lowest surface area based on particle diameter. Further tests such as amino acid analysis, digestibility, and allergenicity are required to be done but could not be completed due to the time limit, COVID-19 restrictions, and broken instrument.
- ItemThe Experience of Caregivers Supporting Adults with Intellectual Disabilities During Hospitalisation: A Qualitative Study(Auckland University of Technology, 2022) Fuller, EmmaThis study aimed to explore the lived experiences of caregivers supporting adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) during hospitalisation within Aotearoa. Whilst there has been research that has examined the hospitalisation experiences of caregivers supporting adults with ID internationally, there has been little research undertaken in Aotearoa within this context. Identifying caregivers’ experiences of whether caregivers have been adequately supported during hospital stays supporting their adult with ID, and establishing what worked well and what did not work well, is a crucial element to understanding whether the caregivers were overwhelmed or had insufficient support at any point of the hospital stay with their adult with ID in Aotearoa. This study utilises a qualitative methodology as it enabled lived experiences to be shared, which will help to determine what services within the Aotearoa hospital system are necessary to better support this population in the future. Caregivers of six adults with intellectual disabilities were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Transcripts from these interviews and thematic analysis have been used to identify key themes. The findings discovered the increasing reliance placed on caregivers of adults with ID whilst in hospital. These were highlighted through the interdependence within the themes developed in this research; advocacy, environment, lack of support, lack of awareness, interpersonal care, informed consent, communication, health experience and sense of abandonment. This study broadens the body of knowledge through understanding the challenges caregivers face. Caregivers involved in this study were predominately family caregivers, therefore non-qualified, supporting findings that they are involved in processes beyond their personal competencies. The findings highlight that caregivers experienced insufficient support whilst supporting their adult with ID when in hospital in Aotearoa. This study can be used to show awareness of the challenges that caregivers face in Aotearoa, with further research looking into how these challenges can be addressed. Future research needs to consider the use of artificial intelligence and technology advances that provide assistance with advocating, communication, and supporting ID adults, thus relieving their caregivers of some of these burdens. This is expected to provide positive outcomes.
- ItemExploring the Maintenance of Social Connection for Adults Living with Complex Medical Conditions in New Zealand: A Qualitative Study(Auckland University of Technology, 2023) Hitch, RachaelBackground: Complex medical conditions (CMCs) are persistent and ongoing health conditions that substantially impact an individual’s life and require treatments and services from a variety of healthcare specialists. One area likely to be impacted for this health population is the social dimension of their lives. An understanding of how social connection is maintained by individuals living with CMCs may be used to guide support initiatives. This study sought to answer the research question, “How is social connection maintained by individuals living with Serious and complex medical conditions?” Participants / Method: In 2018 face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 participants who lived with CMCs. Reflexive thematic analysis was used in the current study to analyse the data from 12 of these interviews. Participants ranged in age from 24 to 60 years of age and had lived with their conditions for an average of 15 years. Findings: Six themes were derived from data analysis that gave insight as to how adults living with complex medical conditions maintained social connection: Social connection is maintained despite health challenges; Social interaction is constrained; Social connection is enhanced by prioritising needs; Technology and connection to the outside; CMCs are linked to experiences of social isolation and loneliness; and, connecting through shared experience positively influences social connection. Conclusion: For those living with CMCs regular connection was made with close friends and family despite health challenges. Individuals made efforts to maintain social connection because it was considered important. Physical and emotional condition related factors constrained social interaction. Social connectedness was facilitated by prioritising needs and planning and preparing for social events. Technology significantly enhanced social connection. Individuals living with CMCs experienced social isolation and loneliness but had a variety of strategies to manage these experiences. Owning a dog positively impacted experiences of isolation and loneliness. Connecting through shared experience encouraged reciprocal engagement including informational and emotional support.