Browsing Enterprise and Innovation by Title
Now showing 1 - 20 of 34
Results Per Page
- ItemAccounting: perceptions of influential high school teachers in the USA and NZ(AUT Faculty of Business, 2005) Wells, Paul K; Fieger, P.A decline in enrolments in Accounting programs in the United States of America has been well documented over the last decade. Some researchers have explained that this decline is in part due to the misinformation or lack of information about the nature of accounting and the duties performed by accountants. Other studies have found that a significant number of students make their career choice decisions while at high school and that teachers are influential in this decision making process. This study replicates a US study by surveying NZ high school teachers to compare their perceptions of the accounting profession to, engineering, law and medicine based on 24 attributes of a profession. The results from this study are contrasted to those from the US study. Our findings indicate that similar to the US, NZ high school teachers have a low opinion of accounting as a career option for university-bound high school students. This implies there are significant issues for educators and the profession including a possible mismatch between the requisite skills perceived by teachers and those sought by the profession.
- ItemAccruals and Cash Flows Anomalies: evidence from the New Zealand Stock Market(AUT Faculty of Business, 2005) Koerniadi, H; Tourani-Rad, AThis paper investigates the presence of accruals and cash flows anomalies in the New Zealand stock market for the period of 1987 to 2003. There is insignificant evidence of accruals anomaly. We find, however, that the poor performance of the highest accruals firms contributes most to the positive hedge return. As earnings are positively associated with accruals, it seems that investors are misled by the high accruals in high earnings firms. Further test results based on discretionary accruals support this hypothesis. We also find strong evidence of cash flows anomaly during the sample period.
- ItemAssessment preferences of MBA and MBus students: a New Zealand study(AUT Faculty of Business, 2006) Selvarajah, C.; Pio, E.; Meyer, D.Assessment is often seen as a significant influencer of learning. Cooperative learning which encourages group work is viewed as a major contributor to the development of relevant workforce knowledge and skills, particularly in the context of an increasingly diverse demographic student population. This study seeks to explore the assessment preferences of MBA and MBus students in New Zealand through the use of a survey linking culture and educational preferences. It is hypothesized that the four variables – competition requirements, structure requirements, respect for education and motivation to study will have an influence on assessment preferences, but these relationships will be suppressed or mediated by attitudes to cooperative learning. Results indicate that the most preferred form of assessment is individual assignments with the least preferred being exams for all ethnicities. However, some ethnic differences in assessment preferences did surface and these have been explored. Implications for educators are discussed including the need to legitimize knowledge and traditions from many cultural realities.
- ItemDo insiders crowd out analysts?(AUT Faculty of Business, 2004) Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A; Wisniewski, TBoth insiders and analysts are involved in the collection and dissemination of information to the market, roles which impact heavily on price efficiency and resource allocation. The differences between the two groups, however, result in a competitive relationship with analysts at a disadvantage as they face greater costs associated with information gathering. As a result they may choose not to participate in a onesided competition. We employ transaction data to examine the impact of firm-year aggregate insider trading intensity on the level of analyst following. We find a negative relationship between insider trading intensity and analyst coverage. This result was driven by large blockholders suggesting that analysts are attracted to higher levels of information asymmetry from which they profit.
- ItemEmotions experienced through organisational events: an exploratory framework of perceived justice and outcomes(AUT Faculty of Business, 2003) Smollan, R. K.; Matheny, J.Organisational events trigger a range of emotional experiences for employees. This paper provides a two-by-two matrix that places an inclusive set of emotions in a grid of perceived outcomes and perceived justice. In so doing, it highlights emotional intelligence as an important course of further study regarding organisational change events. Specifically, it provides a series of propositions about the likely emotions arising from the combination of perceived outcomes and justice and the individual differences in these responses to organisational change events.
- ItemEmployee social liability – more than just low social capital within the workplace(Faculty of Business and Law, Auckland University of Technology, 2014) Morrison, RL; MackyWe describe a construct termed employee social liability (ESL); the antithesis of employee social capital. A conceptualisation of social liability does not yet exist and is the aim of this paper. We propose that ESL arises from workplace social networks and comprises four distinct components: negative behaviour from others, distrust of others, unwanted social demands on resources, and a lack of reciprocity. Social networks therefore include relationships that build an employee’s social capital, others that create social liabilities and some relationships that might do both. An individual can therefore have high or low levels of capital and many or few liabilities. We propose that employees with high social capital, and relatively few social liabilities, should also have improved well-being and performance outcomes.
- ItemEnemies at work(AUT Faculty of Business, 2007) Morrison, R.This study investigates the link between perceptions of negative workplace relationships and organisational outcomes. Respondents (n=412) spanned a wide range of occupations, industries and nationalities. Data were collected using an Internet based questionnaire. Results indicated that those with at least one negative relationship at work were significantly less satisfied, reported less organisational commitment, were part of less cohesive workgroups and were significantly more likely to be planning to leave their job.
- ItemExamining the effects of Referent Power on Intrinsic Motivation in organisations: a self-concept based approach(AUT Faculty of Business, 2003) Boggs, C.; Collins, B.; Verreynne, M. L.Using a self-concept based approach we examine the literature for evidence of effects, induced by referent power, on the intrinsic motivation of employees. We propose that the subject of a referent power relationship will be intrinsically motivated to affirm, or enhance their self-concept, in relation to characteristics of a referent agent. Hypotheses were developed and tested using data from 311 employees of a large consulting firm. We found empirical support for the view that referent motivation leads to behaviour in individuals that is in accord with characteristics of a referent agent, with this behaviour resulting in affirmation or enhancement of their self-concept.
- ItemExploring entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: examining the application of Strategic Entrepreneurship to SOEs(AUT Faculty of Business, 2005) Luke, B.; Verreynne, M. L.The purpose of this research is to elaborate on a model of entrepreneurship within the public sector. Case studies involving state-owned enterprises (SOEs) trace three examples of entrepreneurial ventures. A theme of strategic use of entrepreneurial action within these organisations emerges. We argue that these examples are representative of both a field of enquiry and a specific concept which has been termed “strategic entrepreneurship”. On the strength of the findings from this study we are able to draw two important conclusions. First, empirical support is found for the notion of “strategic entrepreneurship”, which is defined and explained in this paper. Second, incidences of strategic entrepreneurship are demonstrated in the SOEs, which extend the range of entrepreneurial types usually described in the public sector.
- ItemGender differences in the relationship between workplace friendships and organisational outcomes(AUT Faculty of Business, 2007) Morrison, R.The current study investigated gender differences in (a) perceived benefits of workplace friendships and (b) the relationship between friendship factors and organisational outcomes. Four hundred and forty-five respondents completed a questionnaire which asked them to describe the benefits they received from workplace friends, and which measured workplace friendship prevalence and opportunities, workgroup cohesion, job satisfaction, organisational commitment and intention to leave. Friendships at work were found to be significantly more strongly correlated with job satisfaction for men. In addition, women were significantly more likely than men to describe the benefits of workplace friendship in terms of social and emotional support, while men were more likely to focus on the benefits friends provided them in their career or in functional aspects of “getting the job done”. Findings are discussed in the context of other organisational and gender research.
- ItemIn search of Professional Identity: a descriptive study of New Zealand “Professional” bodies’ codes of ethics(AUT Faculty of Business, 2005) Oliver, G.; McGhee, P.“Professional” representative bodies are increasingly turning to codes of ethics in order to define acceptable standards of behaviour. This study addresses a gap in academic literature by focusing on the codes of New Zealand professional bodies. The term profession has a number of different conceptualisations, which are explored along with the role of codes within the professions. Definitions of codes of ethics are reviewed. Codes from four New Zealand bodies are content analysed according to Cressey and Moore’s (1983) three-point typology: Policy area, Authority and Compliance. A number of differences are noted between the four codes, including area of focus, length, detail, sanctions and the overall utility of the codes in guiding behaviour. Implications for the bodies are discussed, most notably that some of the codes appear not to meet adequate professional standards for guiding ethical behaviour.
- ItemInnovation networks and the development of consumer-driven ICT-based Management Systems(AUT Faculty of Business, 2003) Mowatt, S.; Cox, H.This paper examines the use of consumer-driven innovation networks within the UK food retailing industry using qualitative interview-based research analysed within an economic framework. This perspective revealed that by exploiting information gathered directly from their customers at point-of-sale and data mining, supermarkets are able to identify consumer preferences and co-ordinate new product development via innovation networks. This has been made possible through their information control of the supply-chain established through the use of transparent inventory management systems. As a result, supermarkets e-business systems have established new competitive processes in the UK food processing and retailing industry and are an example of consumer-driven innovation networks. The informant-based qualitative approach also revealed that trust-based transacting relationships operated differently to those previously described in the literature.
- ItemInsider trading, regulation and the components of the Bid-Ask Spread(AUT Faculty of Business, 2005) Frijns, B; Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, AInsiders pose a risk to providers of liquidity, who require compensation for this and consequentially widen spreads. In this paper we investigate the relationship between insider trading regulation and the cost of trading by decomposing the components of the spread before and after the enactment of strict new laws. We find a significant decrease in information asymmetry, which is mainly observed in illiquid and high prechange information asymmetry companies. Results are robust to model specification. We also see a decrease in the contribution of information asymmetry to price volatility. Overall, our results may have implications for markets with similar characteristics.
- ItemInsiders and the law: the impact of Regulatory Change on Insider Trading(AUT Faculty of Business, 2004) Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A; Wisniewski, TThe impact of regulations in minimizing the detrimental effects of insider trading is unsettled. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the introduction of the Securities Market Amendment Act 2002 in New Zealand on several aspects of the market. After examining a sample of companies listed before and after the new laws introduction, we find strong evidence of a reduction in the cost of capital, bid-ask spreads and volatility accompanied by increases in liquidity, all as predicted. We conclude that the change in regulations has had a positive impact on the market.
- ItemInternet strategies for established retailers: five case studies from New Zealand(AUT Faculty of Business, 2003) Doolin, B.; McQueen, B.; Watton, M.This paper reports the findings of research on the strategic responses of established retailers to the challenges and opportunities offered by the Internet and the development of electronic commerce. The paper identifies a range of factors that influence the adoption of Internet retailing and presents a simple framework for categorising Internet strategies based on five case studies of New Zealand retailing companies.
- ItemMeasuring intangible value in business to business buyer-seller relationships: an intellectual capital perspective(AUT Faculty of Business, 2003) Baxter, RA; Sheelagh, M.The value in a firm's relationships needs to be developed and managed carefully and marketing managers need to be able to quantify this value in order to manage it and in order to argue for their share of the firm’s resources to develop it. This paper describes a study that aims to test a hypothesised model of the intangible part of the value that is manifested in buyer-seller relationships and a set of scales to measure it. The focus of the research, which synthesises a framework from the intellectual capital literature, is on business to business situations and on the value of the relationship to the seller, rather than to the buyer. In the study described, data from a survey of relevant managers were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling techniques to test the hypotheses.
- ItemMeridian Energy and Project Aqua: a study in stakeholder identification and salience(AUT Faculty of Business, 2006) Wells, Philippa KatherineIn 2004 Meridian Energy, a New Zealand State Owned Enterprise, announced its decision to cancel Project Aqua, a power generation scheme that would have involved the construction of six dams on the lower Waitaki river, in the South Island of New Zealand. The decision is interesting in terms of its implications for stakeholders who, as a consequence of transformation in the public sector, have arguably few formal avenues to pursue in challenging the decisions of managers of these enterprises. This paper applies a stakeholder identification/salience framework in exploring the position of, and strategies utilised by, those seeking identification and response from managers. A focus to this exploration is provided though reference to an important theme, that of the symbolic importance of the river – as location and as resource. The conclusion reached as a result of this exploration is that both those seeking recognition as stakeholders and decision-makers within organizations should be cognizant of the implications of socio-legal context on strategy and policy.
- ItemMonetary Policy Transparency and Pass-Through of retail interest rates(AUT Faculty of Business, 2005) Liu, MH; Margaritis, D; Tourani-Rad, AThis paper examines the degree of pass-through and adjustment speed of retail interest rates in response to changes in benchmark wholesale rates in New Zealand during the period 1994 to 2004. We consider the effect of policy transparency and financial structure in the transmission mechanism. New Zealand is the first OECD country to adopt a formal inflation targeting regime with specific accountability and transparency provisions. Policy transparency was further enhanced by a shift from quantity (settlement cash) to price (interest rate) operating targets in 1999. We find complete long-term pass-through for some but not all retail rates. Our results also show that the introduction of the Official Cash Rate (OCR) increased the pass-through of floating and deposit rates but not fixed mortgage rates. Overall, our results confirm that monetary policy rate has more influence on short-term interest rates and that increased transparency has lowered instrument volatility and enhanced the efficacy of policy.
- ItemNew perspectives on the Supply-Chain and Consumer-Driven innovation(AUT Faculty of Business, 2004) Mowatt, S.This paper considers the interrelationship between innovation and the control of the supply-chain in consumer-driven industries. In particular the paper employs the concepts of Control and Innovation Networks as an analytical framework to examine the coordination of the supply-chain and inter-organisational collaboration. In-depth empirical evidence is provided by two cases industries: the UK supermarket and the UK consumer magazine publishing sector. By separating the process of supply-chain integration and coordination from the control of supply-chain, motives for collaboration and conflict were explored. A detailed analysis is given of the innovation process in both sectors, and new patterns of inter-organisational cooperation are identified. Network Hubs were shown to be able to use their control of the critical information of consumer demand to drive innovation and extract value-adding activities. In both cases examined the Innovation Hub was able to greatly extend the industry supplier base through the incorporation of external actors into the value system. This has widened the industry participation, but acted to change patterns of innovation within sectors. Consumer-driven Innovation Networks dependent on access to consumers through retail channels were found to be potentially vulnerable to retailer Control Networks.
- ItemPaying attention to the Construct Of Salience In Identity-related Literature and Beyond(AUT Faculty of Business, 2004) Anderson, H.; Matheny, J.This paper reviews the salience construct, proposing a definition of salience as a phenomenon of connection between a stimulus and a person. Our framing of the salience construct includes its elements, temporality, and several ontological perspectives of salience. In answer to calls for clarity in the use of concepts in the identity-related literature, this framing is applied to Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. We find each theory unclear in its use of salience, the naming of the elements of salience and the ontological perspective of salience. The importance of gaining clarity in defining and using salience is the contribution to answering questions inherent to identity theories, namely ‘Is an identity triggered by an object of salience, or does the active identity determine which objects of salience gain attention?’ Research propositions based on the proposed definition of salience and the results of the analysis are offered. The implications a precise definition of salience has for identity-related literature and micro-organisational theories, such as leadership and motivation, are briefly outlined.