Browsing KEDRI - the Knowledge Engineering and Discovery Research Institute by Subject "Behavioral and Social Science"
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- ItemBehavioral Outcomes and Neural Network Modeling of a Novel, Putative, Recategorization Sound Therapy(MDPI AG, 2021-04-27) Durai, M; Doborjeh, Z; Sanders, PJ; Vajsakovic, D; Wendt, A; Searchfield, GDThe mechanisms underlying sound’s effect on tinnitus perception are unclear. Tinnitus activity appears to conflict with perceptual expectations of “real” sound, resulting in it being a salient signal. Attention diverted towards tinnitus during the later stages of object processing potentially disrupts high-order auditory streaming, and its uncertain nature results in negative psychological responses. This study investigated the benefits and neurophysiological basis of passive perceptual training and informational counseling to recategorize phantom perception as a more real auditory object. Specifically, it examined underlying psychoacoustic correlates of tinnitus and the neural activities associated with tinnitus auditory streaming and how malleable these are to change with targeted intervention. Eighteen participants (8 females, 10 males, mean age = 61.6 years) completed the study. The study consisted of 2 parts: (1) An acute exposure over 30 min to a sound that matched the person’s tinnitus (Tinnitus Avatar) that was cross-faded to a selected nature sound (Cicadas, Fan, Water Sound/Rain, Birds, Water and Bird). (2) A chronic exposure for 3 months to the same “morphed” sound. A brain-inspired spiking neural network (SNN) architecture was used to model and compare differences between electroencephalography (EEG) patterns recorded prior to morphing sound presentation, during, after (3-month), and post-follow-up. Results showed that the tinnitus avatar generated was a good match to an individual’s tinnitus as rated on likeness scales and was not rated as unpleasant. The five environmental sounds selected for this study were also rated as being appropriate matches to individuals’ tinnitus and largely pleasant to listen to. There was a significant reduction in the Tinnitus Functional Index score and subscales of intrusiveness of the tinnitus signal and ability to concentrate with the tinnitus trial end compared to baseline. There was a significant decrease in how strong the tinnitus signal was rated as well as ratings of how easy it was to ignore the tinnitus signal on severity rating scales. Qualitative analysis found that the environmental sound interacted with the tinnitus in a positive way, but participants did not experience change in severity, however, characteristics of tinnitus, including pitch and uniformity of sound, were reported to change. The results indicate the feasibility of the computational SNN method and preliminary evidence that the sound exposure may change activation of neural tinnitus networks and greater bilateral hemispheric involvement as the sound morphs over time into natural environmental sound; particularly relating to attention and discriminatory judgments (dorsal attention network, precentral gyrus, ventral anterior network). This is the first study that attempts to recategorize tinnitus using passive auditory training to a sound that morphs from resembling the person’s tinnitus to a natural sound. These findings will be used to design future-controlled trials to elucidate whether the approach used differs in effect and mechanism from conventional Broadband Noise (BBN) sound therapy.
- ItemInvestigation of Social and Cognitive Predictors in Non-transition Ultra-high-risk' Individuals for Psychosis Using Spiking Neural Networks(Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2023-02-15) Doborjeh, Zohreh; Doborjeh, Maryam; Sumich, Alexander; Singh, Balkaran; Merkin, Alexander; Budhraja, Sugam; Goh, Wilson; Lai, Edmund M-K; Williams, Margaret; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Jimmy; Kasabov, NikolaFinding predictors of social and cognitive impairment in non-transition Ultra-High-Risk individuals (UHR) is critical in prognosis and planning of potential personalised intervention strategies. Social and cognitive functioning observed in youth at UHR for psychosis may be protective against transition to clinically relevant illness. The current study used a computational method known as Spiking Neural Network (SNN) to identify the cognitive and social predictors of transitioning outcome. Participants (90 UHR, 81 Healthy Control (HC)) completed batteries of neuropsychological tests in the domains of verbal memory, working memory, processing speed, attention, executive function along with social skills-based performance at baseline and 4 × 6-month follow-up intervals. The UHR status was recorded as Remitters, Converters or Maintained. SNN were used to model interactions between variables across groups over time and classify UHR status. The performance of SNN was examined relative to other machine learning methods. Higher interaction between social and cognitive variables was seen for the Maintained, than Remitter subgroup. Findings identified the most important cognitive and social variables (particularly verbal memory, processing speed, attention, affect and interpersonal social functioning) that showed discriminative patterns in the SNN models of HC vs UHR subgroups, with accuracies up to 80%; outperforming other machine learning models (56-64% based on 18 months data). This finding is indicative of a promising direction for early detection of social and cognitive impairment in UHR individuals that may not anticipate transition to psychosis and implicate early initiated interventions to stem the impact of clinical symptoms of psychosis.