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dc.contributor.authorMeissner, AMen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorChristiansen, Fen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMartinez, Een_NZ
dc.contributor.authorPawley, MDen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorOrams, MBen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorStockin, KAen_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2015-07-27T02:47:22Z
dc.date.available2015-07-27T02:47:22Z
dc.date.copyright2015en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationPLoS ONE 10(1): e0116962. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116962en_NZ
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/8986
dc.description.abstractCommon dolphins, Delphinus sp., are one of the marine mammal species tourism operations in New Zealand focus on. While effects of cetacean-watching activities have previously been examined in coastal regions in New Zealand, this study is the first to investigate effects of commercial tourism and recreational vessels on common dolphins in an open oceanic habitat. Observations from both an independent research vessel and aboard commercial tour vessels operating off the central and east coast Bay of Plenty, North Island, New Zealand were used to assess dolphin behaviour and record the level of compliance by permitted commercial tour operators and private recreational vessels with New Zealand regulations. Dolphin behaviour was assessed using two different approaches to Markov chain analysis in order to examine variation of responses of dolphins to vessels. Results showed that, regardless of the variance in Markov methods, dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly altered by boat interactions. Dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions and took significantly longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. This research raises concerns about the potential disruption to feeding, a biologically critical behaviour. This may be particularly important in an open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable in abundance. Furthermore, because tourism in this region focuses on common dolphins transiting between adjacent coastal locations, the potential for cumulative effects could exacerbate the local effects demonstrated in this study. While the overall level of compliance by commercial operators was relatively high, non-compliance to the regulations was observed with time restriction, number or speed of vessels interacting with dolphins not being respected. Additionally, prohibited swimming with calves did occur. The effects shown in this study should be carefully considered within conservation management plans, in order to reduce the risk of detrimental effects on common dolphins within the region.en_NZ
dc.languageengen_NZ
dc.publisherPLOS
dc.relation.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116962
dc.rights© 2015 Meissner et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.titleBehavioural effects of tourism on oceanic common dolphins, delphinus sp., in New Zealand: the effects of Markov analysis variations and current tour operator compliance with regulationsen_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0116962en_NZ
aut.relation.issue1en_NZ
aut.relation.startpagee0116962
aut.relation.volume10en_NZ
pubs.elements-id177511


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