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dc.contributor.authorRoth, GAen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, Cen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAbajobir, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAbd-Allah, Fen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAbera, SFen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAbyu, Gen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAhmed, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAksut, Ben_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAlam, Ten_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAlam, Ken_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAlla, Fen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAlvis-Guzman, Nen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAmrock, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAnsari, Hen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorÄrnlöv, Jen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAsayesh, Hen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAtey, TMen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAvila-Burgos, Len_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAwasthi, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBanerjee, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBarac, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBärnighausen, Ten_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBarregard, Len_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBedi, Nen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBelay Ketema, Een_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBennett, Den_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBerhe, Gen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBhutta, Zen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorBitew, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCarapetis, Jen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCarrero, JJen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorMalta, DCen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCastañeda-Orjuela, CAen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCastillo-Rivas, Jen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCatalá-López, Fen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorChoi, JYen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorChristensen, Hen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCirillo, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCooper, Len_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCriqui, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorCundiff, Den_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDamasceno, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDandona, Len_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDandona, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDavletov, Ken_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDharmaratne, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDorairaj, Pen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDubey, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorEhrenkranz, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorEl Sayed Zaki, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorFaraon, EJAen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorEsteghamati, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorFarid, Ten_NZ
dc.contributor.authorFarvid, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorFeigin, Ven_NZ
dc.contributor.authorDing, ELen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorFowkes, Gen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGebrehiwot, Ten_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGillum, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGold, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGona, Pen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHabtewold, TDen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHafezi-Nejad, Nen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHailu, Ten_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHailu, GBen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHankey, Gen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHassen, HYen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorAbate, KHen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHavmoeller, Ren_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHay, SIen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHorino, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorHotez, PJen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJacobsen, Ken_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJames, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJavanbakht, Men_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJeemon, Pen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJohn, Den_NZ
dc.contributor.authorJonas, Jen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKalkonde, Yen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKarimkhani, Cen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKasaeian, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhader, Yen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhan, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhang, YHen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhera, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhoja, ATen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKhubchandani, Jen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKim, Den_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKolte, Den_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKosen, Sen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKrohn, KJen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKumar, GAen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorKwan, Gen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorLal, DKen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorLarsson, Aen_NZ
dc.contributor.authorLinn, Sen_NZ
dc.date.accessioned2020-08-21T00:07:04Z
dc.date.available2020-08-21T00:07:04Z
dc.date.copyright2017en_NZ
dc.identifier.citationJournal of the American College of Cardiology, Volume 70, Issue 1, 4 July 2017, Pages 1-25
dc.identifier.issn0735-1097en_NZ
dc.identifier.issn1558-3597en_NZ
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10292/13604
dc.description.abstractBackground: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. Objectives: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. Methods: CVD mortality was estimated from vital registration and verbal autopsy data. CVD prevalence was estimated using modeling software and data from health surveys, prospective cohorts, health system administrative data, and registries. Years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated by multiplying prevalence by disability weights. Years of life lost (YLL) were estimated by multiplying age-specific CVD deaths by a reference life expectancy. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 422.7 million cases of CVD (95% uncertainty interval: 415.53 to 427.87 million cases) and 17.92 million CVD deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 17.59 to 18.28 million CVD deaths). Declines in the age-standardized CVD death rate occurred between 1990 and 2015 in all high-income and some middle-income countries. Ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of CVD health lost globally, as well as in each world region, followed by stroke. As SDI increased beyond 0.25, the highest CVD mortality shifted from women to men. CVD mortality decreased sharply for both sexes in countries with an SDI >0.75. Conclusions: CVDs remain a major cause of health loss for all regions of the world. Sociodemographic change over the past 25 years has been associated with dramatic declines in CVD in regions with very high SDI, but only a gradual decrease or no change in most regions. Future updates of the GBD study can be used to guide policymakers who are focused on reducing the overall burden of noncommunicable disease and achieving specific global health targets for CVD.en_NZ
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.urihttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0735109717372443?via%3Dihub
dc.rights© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.subjectCause of death; Epidemiology; Global health
dc.titleGlobal, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015en_NZ
dc.typeJournal Article
dc.rights.accessrightsOpenAccessen_NZ
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.jacc.2017.04.052en_NZ
aut.relation.issue1en_NZ
aut.relation.volume70en_NZ
pubs.elements-id280694
aut.relation.journalJournal of the American College of Cardiologyen_NZ


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